When a couple has fertility issues, the causes can be multiple and overlapping. Male problems are just as likely as female problems, and the cause is almost certainly a combination of both partners. Idiopathic infertility occurs when the exact cause of infertility is unknown or unexplained in many cases. Because there are so many factors that contribute to infertility, this website can only provide a summary of the most common infertility problems for both males and females. These causes or factors may overlap and occur concurrently in some cases, compounding their effects on fertility.
Infertility is frequently caused by ovulation problems (the monthly release of an egg from the ovaries). Some issues can prevent eggs from being released at all, while others prevent an egg from being released only during certain cycles.
Pelvic surgery has the potential to damage and scar the fallopian tubes, which connect the ovaries to the womb. Cervical surgery can also cause scarring or shorten the womb’s neck (the cervix).
When you ovulate, the mucus in your cervix thins, making it easier for sperm to pass through. If there is an issue with the mucus, it can make it difficult to conceive.
Fibroids, which are noncancerous growths in or around the womb, can interfere with fertility. They may prevent a fertilized egg from attaching to the womb in some cases, or they may block a fallopian tube.
Endometriosis is a condition in which small pieces of the womb lining (the endometrium) begin to grow in places other than the womb, such as the ovaries. This can harm the ovaries or fallopian tubes, resulting in infertility.
The infection of the upper female genital tract, which includes the womb, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, is known as a pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Poor-quality semen, the fluid containing sperm that is ejaculated during sex, is a common cause of male infertility.
Sperm is produced and stored in the testicles. If they are damaged, the quality of your sperm will suffer.
If a man does not want children or more children, he may choose to have a vasectomy. It entails cutting and sealing off the tubes that transport sperm from your testicles (the vas deferens) so that your sperm is no longer present in your sperm.
Some men have ejaculation issues that make it difficult for them to release sperm during sex.
Hypogonadism is characterized by an abnormally low level of testosterone, the male sex hormone involved in sperm production. It could be the result of a tumor, the use of illegal drugs, or Klinefelter syndrome (a rare syndrome involving an extra female chromosome).
Unexplained infertility accounts for approximately one in every four cases of infertility in the United Kingdom. This occurs when neither partner can identify a cause. If no cause for your fertility issues has been identified, consult with your doctor about the next steps. Women with unexplained infertility who have not conceived after two years of regular unprotected sex should be offered IVF treatment, according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE).