In some cases, a man’s testes produce sperm, but his sperm does not exist in his semen. In such cases, the surgical sperm retrieval method is usually used in an IVF cycle where sperm are harvested directly from the testicles and subsequently used to fertilize eggs. PESA and TESA are two of the most common techniques used to obtain sperm from the male patient, which is then used to fertilize the eggs.
Sperm can be retrieved surgically from the testicles in the following cases:
- Physical obstructions hinder the production of sperm
- In the case of azoospermia (no sperms)
- Oligospermia (low sperm count)
- Sperm motility is low (asthenospermia).
- He has undergone a vasectomy that cannot be reversed.
- He has no vas deferens
- A blockage in the tubes carries sperm from the testicles to the penis, possibly caused by testicular cancer. (It is essential to retrieve the sperm before cancer treatment begins in such cases.)
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